Shoulder instability (or actually the shoulder joint) is a condition in which the head of the humerus is displaced relative to the acetabulum of the scapula. The brachial joint is a spherical joint that connects the humerus with the scapula. The relatively small acetabulum and large head of the humerus in combination with the loose and spacious joint capsule are the main reasons for its low stability.
The shoulder joint is the joint with the greatest range of mobility – and thus – very susceptible to various types of injuries and injuries.One of the most common injuries of the shoulder joint is its dislocation. The shoulder joint after such an injury often becomes prone to recurring dislocations. Recurrent slipping of the humerus head out of the acetabulum is called chronic shoulder (brachial) instability.
Shoulder dislocation – symptoms
Shoulder dislocation occurs most often as a result of a mechanical injury – it may be a fall on the shoulder or an extended arm. Athletes who practice contact sports, horse riding, cycling or skiing, as well as people exercising at the gym, are often exposed to shoulder dislocation. Symptoms of a shoulder dislocation are primarily pain and swelling in the shoulder area. People with a dislocated shoulder have problems with moving the arm, and slim people can see swelling and deformation of the shoulder area.
After a shoulder joint dislocation, the doctor prescribes conservative treatment in most cases. When the dislocation is accompanied by severe damage to the labrum and / or the acetabulum of the scapula, surgical treatment is required. If the shoulder has been knocked out without damaging the joint structures, it is first adjusted and then rehabilitated. Your doctor may prescribe oral painkillers to reduce the discomfort of the pain you are experiencing. The next stage of treatment is the stabilization and regeneration of damaged tissues.
The limb is stabilized for about 2-4 weeks in a special orthosis. This time is needed for the articular capsule to heal. The therapy during this period mainly consists of lymphatic drainage accelerating the evacuation of edema, manual therapy of the soft tissues of the shoulder area, electrostimulation of the muscles of the shoulder girdle, cryotherapy, iontophoresis with an analgesic. These methods are designed to accelerate the healing process of tissues.
It is important that the patient is diagnosed as soon as possible and effectively treated from the beginning of the symptoms, in order to shorten the recovery period, for this purpose, X-ray, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging tests are used. In conservative treatment, it is important to avoid overstraining the hand and to cool the affected shoulder.
The key element is movement rehabilitation with the help of a physiotherapist, based on appropriately selected strengthening and relaxing exercises, aimed at restoring the proper function of the shoulder. For this purpose, the following are used: manual therapy, shoulder massage, fascial relaxation, deep tissue massage, kinesiotaping.
In the final stage, exercises for the entire upper limb are introduced, which increase its muscle strength, improve control and dynamics of movements. Exercises are also implemented to improve its stabilization, deep feeling and neuromuscular control. The treatment can be complemented by physical therapy: cryotherapy, laser, ultrasound, magnetronic, electrotherapy: (TENS, diadynamics, electrostimulation), SOLUX lamp.