Shoulder pain can be the result of an injury or disease of the shoulder joint. Injuries may involve ligaments, calculi or tendons surrounding the shoulder joint. Injuries can also affect the cartilage, the meniscus and the bones of the joint. The shoulder joint is designed to sacrifice stability for mobility. As an extremely mobile joint, which plays a key role in the operation of a large limb, the shoulder is at risk of injury.
Frequent injuries to the shoulder can lead to inflammation of the scapula (calcaneal inflammation) or tendons (tendinitis), which leads to compression, instability and freezing of the shoulder. Rib fractures can occur from ruptured cartilage. A broken shoulder bone can cause severe shoulder pain.
Pain can also occur in the shoulder due to diseases or conditions related to the shoulder joint (including arthritis, osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis with bone spurs), soft tissue and bone surrounding the shoulder, or nerves that provide sensation around the shoulder. Sometimes shoulder pain can be the result of a heart attack.
Anatomy of the shoulder
The shoulder is one of the largest and most complex joints of the body. The shoulder joint arises at the point where the humerus (humerus) fits into the scapula (scapula), like a ball in a hole. Other important bones in the arm include:
- The acromion, which is the bony projection of the scapula.
- The clavicle that contacts the pubic appendix in the shoulder-collarbone joint.
- The sacrum, or bone appendage resembling a hook in the scapula.
- The arm has several important structures:
- The swivel arm is a collection of muscles and tendons that surround the arm, providing support and enabling a wide range of movements.
- This is a small pouch of fluid that cushions and protects the tendons of the rotator ring.
- The cartilage cuff, called the vertebra, forms a ball of the head in the form of a ball of the humerus. The humerus is relatively broad at the shoulder joint. This gives the shoulder a wide range of motion, but also makes it vulnerable to injury.
Why there is pain in the shoulder
Most shoulder problems can be divided into four main categories:
- Tendonitis (calcaneal or tendon) or tendon rupture
- Fracture (broken bone)
Other much less common causes of shoulder pain are cancers, infections and nerve problems.