Don F Du Toit1, Wayne G Kleintjes2, Erick J Mazyala3, Deepak N Bhatia4, Joe F De Beer4, Benedict J Page2
1 Division of Anatomy and Histology, Academic Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch; Diabetes Mellitus Discovery Research Platform, Medical Research Council, Parow, South Africa
2 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon, Suite 1008, Louis Leipoldt Hospital, Bellville, South Africa
3 Division of Anatomy and Histology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa
4 Cape Shoulder Institute, Suite 4, Medgroup House, Plattekloof, Cape Town, South Africa
The process of autologous cell regeneration (ACR) is a facet of cell therapy and regenerative medicine. It is initiated when activated autologous platelet rich plasma alone (PRP), containing cytokines or growth factors, is injected into the dermis or other structure in order to initiate a regenerative or antiaging process. The recipients resident cells at the target zone are activated by biologically active growth factors, derived from the activated platelets in the PRP through a paracrine effect. The platelet gel that contains the fibrin and clumped platelets, releases growth factors that influences activation of macrophages and stem cells in the recipient site. Tissue regeneration is facilitated by stem cell proliferation and differentiation. The PRP that has sealant and wound healing properties, may shift the wound healing cascade to the left, thereby speeding up tissue regeneration and remodelling by the use of the recipients own plasma.
Both the fibroblast and myofibroblast play key roles in the wound healing cascade. The fibroblast, of mesenchymal origin, plays a pivotal role in the formation of the extracellular matrix and deposition of collagen. A failure of organised fibroblast function results in important and disabling disease processes and conditions such as chronic ischaemic heart disease and remodelling of the heart, lung fibrosis, fibromatosis, solar aged-face, keloids, hypertrophic scar formation, nodular fasciitis, inguinal hernia, Dupuytren's disease and scleroderma. More recent additions include frozen shoulder and the captured shoulder. In aesthetic medicine, one of the prime functions of fractional photothermolysis with lasers, intense pulsed light and radiofrequency devices, is to stimulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, by thermal energy thereby increasing collagen deposition which enhances facial rejuvenation. Platelet -rich plasma (REGENLAB PRP, REGENLAB-ACR) possesses unique growth factors that stimulate, fibroblast, keratinocyte and myoblasts ex vivo in tissue culture, allowing three-dimensional cell proliferation within the fibrin gel. PRP can be used as a cell carrier (i.e., keratinocytes, fibroblasts), may enhance cell retention at the point of treatment. REGENKIT is authorized for human use, ISO and CE marked. In this overview fibroblast morphology, tissue culture and cell biology relevant to the shoulder surgeon is reviewed.
Don F Du Toit
Division of Anatomy and Histology, Biomedical Sciences, PO Box 19063, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Parow, 7500
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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